Computer CPU (Central Processing Unit)

The CPU, which is pronounced “sea-pea-you,” is the central processing unit of the computer. It is also known as a processor, central processor, or microprocessor. All commands that a computer’s hardware and software send to it are handled by the CPU. For instance, the CPU processed the commands to open and display this web page on your computer using a web browser.

what is computer cpu
what is computer cpu

What is a CPU?

The electronic equipment that carries out the instructions included in a computer program is known as a central processing unit, often known as a central processor, main processor, or simply processor. The CPU executes fundamental mathematical, logical, controlling, and input/output activities as directed by the program’s instructions.

The CPU itself consists of three items below.

  • Control Unit
  • Memory or Storage
  • ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

Control Unit

The control unit is the CPU stored component of the computer by which all the components of the computer are controlled, no actual data processing is done by it.

These are the functions of this unit:

  • It is in charge of regulating how data and instructions are passed between the many components of a computer.
  • It controls and organizes all the components of the computer.
  • It retrieves instructions from memory, decodes them, and controls how the machine should operate.
  • For transfer of data or results from storage, it communicates with input/output devices.
  • It does not store or process data.

Memory or Storage Unit

This component has storage space for instructions, data, and interim outcomes. When necessary, this device provides data to the computer’s other components. It is sometimes referred to as an internal storage device, primary memory, or random access memory (RAM).

Its size has an impact on its capacity, power, and speed. The computer has two different types of memories: primary memory and secondary memory. The memory unit’s features are:

  • It keeps all the information and processing-related instructions.
  • It saves processing-related interim results.
  • Before these results are sent to an output device, it stores the processing’s final outcomes.
  • The main memory is used to communicate both inputs and outputs.

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

There are two subsections in this unit:

  • Logic Section
  • Arithmetic Section

Logic Section

The purpose of the logic section is to carry out logic operations on the data, including comparison, selection, matching, and merging.

Arithmetic Section

The addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division operations are carried out in the arithmetic area. The above operations are used repeatedly to complete all complex operations.

What does a CPU do?

In a word, a CPU is in charge of processing logical and mathematical operations as well as carrying out instructions that are given to it.

Though it can process millions of instructions each second, it can only process one at a time.

It first gets some kind of input, usually through an input device (such as a monitor display screen, a keyboard, a mouse, or a microphone) or from an application or system software program (like your web browser or operating system).

The CPU handles the following four tasks:

  • In order to understand how to handle the input and know the relevant instructions for that specific input data it got, the system fetches instructions from memory. It directs the request to the RAM after looking for the address of the relevant instruction. The CPU and RAM collaborate continually. It’s sometimes referred to as reading from memory.
  • Making the instructions understandable for the CPU by decoding or translating them into machine language (binary).
  • putting into practice and carrying out the instructions.
  • The execution’s outcome being saved in memory for potential later retrieval. Another name for this is writing to memory.

The output comes later in the process, which may include printing something to the screen.

The fetch-execution cycle, which includes the above process, occurs millions of times every second.

FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions

Ans. With assistance from Ted Hoff and others, Intel created the first CPU in the early 1970s. The 4004 processor, was Intel’s first processor to be made available.

Ans. The computer’s instructions and processing power come from the processor, also referred to as the CPU. Your computer can perform tasks more quickly the more capable and modern processor it has. You may make your computer work and think more quickly by upgrading its CPU.


The features of a central processing unit (CPU) are as follows:

  • The CPU is referred to as the computer’s brain.
  • All types of data processing tasks are carried out by the CPU.
  • It keeps instructions, outcomes from intermediary steps, and data (program).
  • All components of the computer are operated under its direction.


Ans. Since 1955, the phrase “central processing unit” has been in usage. The first devices that could legitimately be named CPUs appeared with the invention of the stored-program computer since the term “CPU” is commonly understood as a device for software (computer program) execution.

Ans. A computer’s instruction and processing power comes from the processor, also known as the CPU. Your computer can perform tasks more quickly with a more capable and modern processor. You can make your computer do more work and think faster by upgrading its CPU.

The brain of any computer system is the CPU.

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