What is computer hardware?

Generally, all those parts of the computer which we can touch and see are called computer hardware. Computer hardware is a physical component that we can perceive. It mainly includes mechanical, electrical, and electronic parts of the computer. All the parts inside the computer, the input and output devices of the computer, etc. are all called computer hardware.


What is computer hardware?

Hardware is the physical part of the computer to which other digital circuits of the computer are attached and we use these digital circuits or hardware with the help of any type of program and application software in our computer.

The parts of the computer which are required to run the computer are called standard devices. Such as – a keyboard, hard disk, monitor, etc. Apart from these, those parts or devices which are connected to the computer are called peripheral devices. Thus we can say that computer hardware is made up of standard and peripheral devices.

Different types of computer hardware

No.Hardware TypesExamples
1Input DevicesKeyboard and Mouse
2Output DevicesPrinter and Monitor
3Secondary Storage DevicesHard Disks, CD and DVD
4Internal ComponentsCPU, Motherboard, RAM, and Power Supply Unit

Development of computer hardware

Most of the components of a personal computer are still the same as they were in the 1990s, but the computers being built now or the computers we use are using “fewer” hardware parts instead of “more”. Some parts of a computer still function as they once did. The motherboard still serves as the computer’s central hub, with everything connected to it; The processor still follows instructions; RAM still stores data for quick access, and hard drives still store data for longer periods. The way those pieces are connected and how quickly they work, however, has changed significantly.
Recently, computers have started to use solid-state or flash memory technology to store data instead of hard drives, allowing computers to access data even faster. Since the rise of the smartphone, computer hardware has become smaller than it used to be. But even with smartphones being smaller, there are a lot of similar components doing the same things that they do in full-size computers.
While laptops, tablets, and smartphones all have different form factors, their internal components are quite similar.
Intel manufactures ULV, or Ultra Low Voltage, processors for thin and light notebooks that run at lower wattages than its regular laptop chips. Laptops also use smaller RAM and hard drives than desktops. Some laptop manufacturers, such as Apple, even include solid-state memory on the motherboard instead of a hard drive, which also saves more space.
Phones and tablets have to be incredibly compact. Instead of a motherboard, the heart of a mobile device is a system-on-a-chip or SoC. The SoC integrates everything – processor, graphics processor, RAM, interfaces like USB, interfaces for audio, and more on a single board. Of course, touch devices include some hardware that desktop computers do not, such as touch controllers for feeling our fingers. Instead of an internal power supply, laptops and mobile devices have batteries.
But for the most part, all those computers are the same – the hardware just comes in different shapes and sizes.

What are input-output devices?

Input and output devices facilitate communication between computers and humans. The input device converts the input data and programs given by the human (user) into machine language or computer understandable form, on the other hand, the output device converts the result (0 and 1 bit) received by the computer into human-understandable language. converts and renders. Input-output devices are often under the direct control of the computer.
Input deviceskeyboard, mouse, mouse, joystick, scanner, etc.
Output Device – Printer, Monitor, etc.

What are secondary storage devices?

The secondary storage device is an external storage device (memory) that the user or human uses to keep the things he needs (files, photos, videos, and programs) safe in which data can be stored for a long time. . Just as we can remember anything in the memory of our brain, in the same way, the computer also has memory and data can be stored in this memory for a long time.
There are several types of secondary storage devices :

  1. Solid-State Drive (SSD)
  2. Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
  3. Universal Flash Drive(USB)
  4. MO Disk (MOD)
  5. Floppy Disk
  6. Magnetic Tape
  7. CD ROM

What are the internal components of a computer?

If you have ever seen an open computer, then you must have found that the computer is made up of many small parts which look very complicated but they are not that complicated, and understanding these parts will not be so difficult if you read this article completely. There are many internal components or parts in the computer, here I will tell about some of the main parts for you.

The internal main components or parts of a computer are as follows:

  • MotherBoard
  • Graphics card
  • CPU/Processor
  • Power Supply Unit
  • Expansion Card


The main circuit board of the computer is called the motherboard. It is like a thin plate, in which many things (CPU, memory, hard drive and optical drive, connectors to control audio, video) are directly or indirectly connected.
The motherboard acts as a brain; Allocating power where it is needed, communicating and coordinating with all other components – this is one of the most important pieces of hardware in a computer.


CPU or Processor is found in the motherboard inside the computer, it acts like the human brain in a computer, simply put, the CPU is the brain of the computer which controls all the activities of the computer. Controls CPU The faster the processor or speed, the faster the CPU or computer will do the processing.
The CPU (Central Processing Unit or Processor) is responsible for processing all the information from the programs your computer runs. The clock speed or the speed at which the processor processes information is measured in gigahertz. This means that a processor advertising a higher GHz rating will likely perform faster than a similarly specified processor of the same brand and age.
Today’s CPUs are small, but they are capable of performing massive, speedy calculations.

Power supply unit

A power supply unit, commonly abbreviated as PSU, supplies power to your computer. This is the point where power enters your system from an external power source and is then allocated to individual component hardware by the motherboard. Not all power supplies are made equally though, and without a PSU with the right wattage, your system will fail to function.
A modern computer typically requires a PSU between 500W – 850W to effectively power all the hardware, although the size of the PSU (Power Supply Unit) will depend entirely on the power consumption of the system. Without the right amount of power, components will not be able to run effectively and the computer may experience crashes or simply fail to boot. Computers used for highly intensive tasks such as graphic design or gaming will require more powerful components and thus a larger PSU will be needed to meet this additional requirement.
Understanding your computer and its hardware components can prove to be very useful when the time comes to upgrade or replace any parts, or when building a computer. Should a problem arise with the internal workings of your computer, you will have a better understanding of the importance of each component, what they need to be in good working conditions and how to go about resolving any issues.


Ports are used to interface with electronics both inside and outside the computer.

Serial Port

A legacy technology, serial ports were often used to connect a mouse or modem. By about 2000, most personal computers stopped relying on serial ports and were replaced with PS/2 and/or USB ports. Serial ports are sometimes used for specialized applications such as industrial automation systems, scientific instruments, and point-of-sale systems.


The PS/2 ports (now outdated) were for connecting peripherals such as your keyboard and mouse to the computer. PS/2-based mice and keyboards have now been replaced by USB ports as a popular standard. This trend for USB over PS/2 almost started in 2004.

Parallel Ports

Parallel ports are used to connect other peripherals such as joysticks, and more commonly, printers. Similar to serial ports, this technology is gradually being phased out in favor of USB. Parallel ports can still be found in many motherboards today.

Small Computer system interface

Pronounced “scuzzy”, it was primarily used as a connection interface for tape drives and hard disk drives. SCSI has fallen out of favor with newer and cheaper technologies like USB and FireWire.


USB, short for Universal Serial Bus, is an industry-standard developed in the mid-1990s that defines the cables, connectors, and communication protocols used on the bus for connection, communication, and power supply between computers and electronic devices. A bus is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer or between computers.


Technically known as the IEEE 1394 interface, but dubbed by Apple as Firewire, this connection medium is expected to surpass USB in terms of speed and popularity. Although it outperformed USB v2 in the speed test, it was very limited due to the current widespread use of USB.


A slot is an opening in a computer into which a circuit board can be inserted to add new capabilities. All personal computers have expansion slots to add more memory, graphics capacity, and support for specialized equipment. Expansion slots come in a variety of flavors, which will be described below. An alternative explanation for expansion slots can be found here

Graphics card

A graphic card is also called a video card or video adapter. This happens on all PCs. Graphic cards convert normal signals into video signals so that images can be displayed on a monitor. While many graphics cards are integrated into CPUs these days, enthusiasts will invest in standalone graphics cards with stronger processing capabilities. This allows for heavy image editing or better rendering and framerates in computer games.
Graphics cards are designed to take rendering off the CPU. Graphics cards are powered by the motherboard.

Sound cards

A sound card, also known as an audio card, facilitates the control of computer programs and the input and output of audio signals to and from the computer. Sound cards for computers were unusual until 1988, which abandoned a single internal PC speaker, the way early PC software could produce sound and music.

Network Interface Card

The network interface card can be a network card, network adapter, LAN adapter, or NIC (Network Interface Card). They are a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. It is used for fault communication through cable. The data is transmitted over a cable network. The NIC connects computers and other devices such as printers. Many modern motherboards have NICs built-in by default.

Cooling Fan

The cooling fan is the part of computer hardware that works to cool down the computer. Simply put, the cooling fan protects the computer from overheating, it acts like an AC in the computer.

Conclusion :

So here we have seen various types of computer hardware. I hope you will find this article helpful.
If you still have any doubts regarding the computer hardware, then you can ask us through comment, or add your questions and answers in a comment below! I will try my best to clear your doubt.
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