What is an Operating System?

What does an OS do? An operating system manages all the resources of the computer system and all the software that runs on it. In fact, without an operating system, you cannot run any of your software applications at all. An OS is like the brain of a computer, controlling input to output, storage and retrieval, and everything in between!

What is an Operating System?
What is an Operating System?

Definition of Operating System

There are many definitions of the operating system are available, and all experts have defined OS according to their own. I have given you the most discussed definition here which is widely used in Software Engineering.

“Operating system is the interface between user and hardware

History of OS

The main goal of operating systems developers was to allow other program developers to access the hardware and abstract away the hardware-related details. Early operating systems only ran one program at a time, but newer systems allowed multiple programs to run at once. For example, Windows 8 can run up to 8 applications simultaneously; Multitasking has been possible since OS/2 2.0 in 1987.

Operating systems such as Linux and Unix also support multithreading so that a single application may appear to run more than one task at a time (using multiple threads) if its developer chooses to use threading in its code.

Why does the OS exist?

Although both hardware and software are essential components of a computer system, they are almost completely different. The hardware consists of all the physical devices inside or attached to the computer. This includes things like the processor (brain), memory (short-term memory), hard drive (storage), monitor (visual display), etc. Software, on the other hand, consists of all the sets of instructions that direct the hardware. That’s the job. In a nutshell, operating systems do what an orchestra does: they direct the various instruments to be played together to produce harmonious music.

The role of the conductor is comparable to that of an operating system: both keep everyone focused and motivate them to give their best performance.


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Types of operating systems

There are two main types of operating systems: A multitasking system allows multiple programs to run simultaneously, but usually on a single processor. The client-server system gives a program control of (among other things) all processor, memory, and disk space. That program then shares the resources with any number of users.

  • Batch operating system
  • Time-sharing operating system
  • Distributed operating system
  • Multi-tasking operating system
  • Real-time operating system

1. Batch operating system

The Batch operating system is the most important OS among the operating systems used in the computer world.
The user who uses the batch OS does not interact directly with the computer, rather each user prepares his work on an off-line device such as a punch card and submits it to the computer operator. To speed up processing, tasks with similar requirements are batched together and run as a group.

2. Time-sharing operating system

Time-sharing OS is the most important OS among the operating systems used in the computer world. Time-sharing enables multiple people living on different terminals to use a particular computer system at the same time. Multitasking or time-sharing systems are a logical extension of multiprogramming.

3. Distributed operating system

A distributed operating system is the most important operating system among the operating systems used in the computer world. A distributed operating system is system software over a network, a collection of communication, independent and physically separate computational nodes. They handle the instructions to be given by different CPUs at once. Or more than one CPU work in these operating systems at a time.

4. Multi-tasking operating system

Multitasking, in an operating system, provides a computer user with the ability to perform more than one instruction or task (such as operating an application program) at a time.

5. Real-time operating system

The real-time OS is the most important OS among the operating systems used in the computer world. A real-time OS is an operating system designed for real-time applications that process data, instructions, and events that lack the strict time required to perform any tasks.

Basic Functions of the OS

The most important functions of an operating systems are the management of hardware and software resources, scheduling processes for CPU usage, memory management, and file management. As part of its responsibilities for managing hardware and software resources, and the operating system must also act as a gatekeeper, allowing or denying requests from other programs seeking access to those resources.

An OS must also provide a means for applications to share information. For example, if two different word processors are running on a machine that can both save files to disk, there must be some means for the two programs to communicate so that only one is allowed to write at any given time. Can you Although. This should provide way more efficient than each program checking who is writing when they try to save files.

Most popular operating systems

Microsoft Windows, Apple’s Mac OS X, and Google’s Chrome OS. One new operating systems you may hear about in the coming years is Linux. It’s quite popular—about 14% of all web servers run Linux. Another great part of Linux: is it’s open-source, which means anyone can see how it works and can make suggestions for improvements. It becomes very easy to use if you are a programmer as many people are familiar with its source code.


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How to choose the right OS?

There are a lot of options when it comes to operating systems. The two main types are Windows and Mac OS. Then there’s Linux, Android, Chrome OS… even the Internet of Things uses an OS of sorts – more on that later. Which OS you choose depends on your needs and preferred software preferences. To help you with your decision, here’s an analysis of each type of stack-up.

Future trends in operating systems

The ever-changing world of technology has taken us from command line interfaces to touch screens, with many advancements along the way. New operating systems such as Windows 10 and Google’s ChromeOS have also been developed to make these experiences even more seamless and intuitive for users.

Additionally, other initiatives have been taken to help provide support for various programming languages ​​such as Java and C++; Both are required to function fully in a multi-application environment.

Conclusion :

So here we have seen What is an OS? I hope you will find this article helpful.
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