What is computer memory?

Some auxiliary devices and programs are required to run or work on a computer or any system device, one of them is memory, which is used while doing any work on the computer or to save a file.

what is computer

What is memory

Memory is used to store data in the computer while working or we can simply say if we want to say
Memory is the free space that we use to save or protect our documents, files, photos, and videos while working on our computers.

Computer memory is a device used to store data or programs (sequences of instructions) on a temporary or endless basis for use in electronic digital computers. Computers represent information in a double rule, written as a sequence of 0s and 1s, and are called binary numbers. Each binary number (or “bit”) stored by any physical system can be in either of two stable states, to represent 0 and 1. Such a system is called bistable. This can be an on-off switch, an electrical capacitor that can store or lose charge, a charge with its opposition up or down, or a face that may or may not have holes. Moment capacitors and transistors performing as momentary power switches are used for temporary storehouses, and either discs or tape recordings with a glamorous coating or plastic discs with plastic discs are used for long-term storehouses. is done for.

Also Read: What can we do in our life with a computer?

Computer memory is divided into main (or primary) memory and supplementary (or secondary) memory. Main memory holds instructions and data when a program is executed, while supplementary memory holds data and programs that are not currently in use and provides a long-term storehouse.

What are the types of memory?

Here we provide a structure of computer memory so can understand this structure.

types of computer memory
types of computer memory

Computer memory is of four types based on space –

What is Register memory in a computer?

Register memory can also be called register, register memory is the smallest and fastest memory in a computer, the size of register memory is 16, 32, and 64 bits, and you know there is no data stored in the CPU. i.e. register memory is very small in size but often used by CPU, data instruction, and the memory address are temporarily stored inside itself.

What is cache memory in a computer?

Cache memory whether your Android phone or computer, performs any task very fast the cache memory is very small in size but is the main memory of the computer. It is much faster than the CPU, also called CPU’s memory, programs and instructions that are used repeatedly, their cache memory is stored inside itself, before the processor can process any data. Checks cache memory and if that file is not found there, it checks RAM i.e. primary memory, which makes your computer work faster. does.

Also Read: What is computer Hardware

What is primary memory in a computer?

Primary memory is also called main memory, the computer works on this memory. In this, the programs that have to be edited and the data used for their editing are stored. This is the internal memory, which is found inside your computer.
It has two parts:

  • ROM
  • RAM

What is RAM?

RAM is also called Random Access Memory. This memory is also called the temporary memory of the computer, it does not store any data, as long as the computer is running, the data or program is temporarily stored in RAM. And the computer processor uses this data to get the required data and as soon as you turn off the computer, all the data gets deleted, this RAM is also called volatile memory.

What are the types of RAM?

There are three types of RAM-

  • Dynamic ram
  • Synchronous ram
  • Static RAM
Dynamic RAM

Known as DRAM, data is stored in a memory cell in DRAM, each memory cell consists of a transistor and a capacitor, to store a small amount of data. But after about 4 milliseconds the memory cell controllers keep refreshing the memory. Refreshing means they rewrite data, so DRAM is much slower, but it consumes less power than other memory. And does not spoil for a long time.

Synchronous RAM

Synchronous RAM is faster than DRAM because it refreshes faster than DRAM Synchronous RAM refresh with CPU clock speed, so it can transfer data faster

Static RAM

It is known as SRAM, Static RAM is less refreshed but it can keep the data in memory for a long time, it stores the data as long as the system is started, and it is very fast. Accesses data from Static RAM. The data store lasts until it is refreshed, also known as Cache RAM.

What is Rom?

ROM is also called read-only memory. It is a temporary memory, the full name of ROM is read-only memory, the data or program entered while preparing it does not end, and the data stored in ROM is not destroyed even after the computer is turned off. It happens that, when we start our computer, ROM executes the information and BIOS starts the computer at the time of booting, it is also called non-volatile memory.

How many types of ROMs are there?

There are three types of ROMs –

  • PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)
  • EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)
  • EEPROM (Electrical Programmable Read-Only Memory)
PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)

The full name of PROM is ProgrammableRead-Only Memory, in which data can be stored only once, that is, it cannot be erased or changed.

EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)

The full name of EPROM is Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, it is similar to PROM, but the programs stored in it can only be erased by ultraviolet rays and new programs can be stored. can go.

EEPROM (Electrical Programmable Read-Only Memory)

The full name of EEPROM is Electrical Programmable Read-Only Memory, there is also a new technology E-EPROM (EEPROM) in which programs can be erased from memory by electrical method and new programs can be stored.

What is Secondary Memory?

Secondary storage memory is also called an auxiliary storage device. It is not part of the computer, it is available as an external storage device. It is used for backup, and it has more storage capacity, but the speed of accessing data is slower than that of primary memory. These are divided into three parts based on accessing the data

Sequential Access Storage Device

In this action, the storage data is accessed in the order in which it is stored.
An example of this is magnetic tape

Intex Sequential Access Storage Method

This data is accessed only through the sequential access method but an index is created while storing the data in it.

Direct Access Method

Data can be accessed in any order and data can be stored in any order, its access speed is higher than serial access.

Types of External Storage Devices

Computers can store information in many ways. All of these different methods require you and your computer to have a specific storage device. (computer) is required. You have used different storage devices on your computer. You may have noticed or didn’t realize it in time. Storage via zip drives and floppy disks is now out of date. There are many new solutions now being used for computer users to store large amounts of data.
The different storage devices for computers are as follows:

  • Solid-State Drives (SSDs)
  • Hard Disk Drives (HDDs)
  • cloud storage
  • NAS Server
  • Optical Disk
  • magnetic tap
  • cartridge tap
  • floppy disk
  • USB flash drive
  • SD card

Solid State Drive

A solid-state drive (SSD) is a new generation of storage device used in computers. SSDs replace traditional mechanical hard disks by using flash-based memory, which is significantly faster. Older hard-disk storage technologies tend to run slower, which often makes your computer run slower than it should. SSDs significantly accelerate computer speeds due to their short read-access times and fast throughput.

Hard Disk Drive

The development of the hard disk drive is designed to store the data in the computer. It is a magnetic disc. Whatever you download to your computer, the applications you install, your photos, videos, and music are all stored directly on your hard drive. Everything you have on your computer is stored on your internal hard drive. Internal hard drive capacity is measured in gigabytes. The plate of the disc consists of a track and a sector. Sectors store data, 512 bytes of data are stored in a sector. Also, internal computer hard drives have different speeds such as 5400RPM and 7200RPM. This reading is the speed at which the hard drive disk spins. A faster hard drive will have a higher RPM. The faster the hard drive spins, the faster your hard drive can read data as well as write data. It is also used for backup.

Cloud storage

Cloud storage is a model of computer data storage in which digital data is stored in a logical pool, called a “cloud”. Physical storage is spread across multiple servers (sometimes across multiple locations), and the physical environment is usually owned and managed by a hosting company. These cloud storage providers are responsible for keeping data available and accessible and for keeping the physical environment up and running. People and organizations buy or lease storage capacity from providers to store user and organization, or application data.
Cloud storage services can be accessed through a co-located cloud computing service, a web service application programming interface (API), or applications that use the API, such as cloud desktop storage, cloud storage gateways, or web-based content management systems.

Network Attached Storage / NAS Server (NAS)

Another common form of computer storage is network-attached storage or NAS. Network-attached storage is a method commonly used by businesses to share files between computers. A NAS is simply a storage device connected to a computer network. This is beneficial because multiple computers can read and write to the NAS. Network-attached storage capacity is measured in gigabytes. In addition, NAS are available with different hard drive speeds.
Many computer users at home often create their own NAS devices by connecting an external hard drive to their router. This allows them to access it wirelessly, as well as share it with other computers.

Optical Media Storage / Optical Disc

Optical discs are those discs in which light is used to read and write data, this disc is coated with a chemical substance.
These are classified into two parts:

  1. CD
  2. DVD

Magnetic Tape

It is made of plastic. It is covered with a layer of magnetic material. It is wrapped on large pulleys and read and write heads help us to read the data. This head is also capable of writing data. The width of the tape is 0.5 inches, it has 9 paths, it can be purchased as a reel, cassette, or a small battery, and we can read the data found in it sequentially.

Cartridge Tape

The width of this tape is less than that of magnetic tape. Compact cassettes were used in home computers (PCs) in the late 1970s.

Floppy Disk

Floppy is a thin and flexible disk, this round plastic disk is coated with a layer of magnetic material, and this disk is kept in a plastic cover, its storage capacity is 1.44 MB, and After formatting, the capacity to store data in it remains only 1.2MB. The capacity of a floppy is measured in megabytes.


Flash drives, or thumb drives, are one of the newest forms of computer storage. USB flash drives are also called Universal Serial Bus. These drives connect to any computer via USB. Often, students as well as businesses use flash drives as a simple way to transport text documents to and from work and school. When flash drives were first released, storage capacity was limited. However, companies are now manufacturing flash drives with huge storage capacities up to 64 GB. USB capacity is measured in gigabytes.

SD Card

We also know SD card by the name of Secure Digital card, you can store data in it, it is read and write memory storage and you can also delete it. You will get it in different sizes. in which
(1) Full SD card
(2) Mini SD card
(3) micro SD card
The most used SD card in today’s era is the micro SD card, which you can use by putting it on any mobile.

Computer memory measuring unit

Just as there are units like seconds to measure time, decibels to measure sound, meters to measure distance, and kilometers, and grams to measure weight, similarly, in the computer world, units are also determined to measure the storage capacity. What is called a unit or unit of computer memory?
The smallest unit of computer memory is a bit. A bit is a binary sign i.e. only one binary value out of 0 and 1 and when four bits are combined, it is called a nibble. ) i.e. 1 nibble = 4-bit byte (Byte) A group of 8 bits is called a byte.
Generally, when you type a digit or letter on your computer, it is expressed by one byte, or simply put, it occupies space equal to one byte. That is, 1 byte = 8 bits = 2 nibbles, thus a group of about 11099511627776 bytes is called a terabyte and about two million MP3s can be stored in a terabyte.

  • 1 bit = 0, 1 (Binary Digits)
  • 4 bits = 1 nibble
  • 8 bit = 1 Byte
  • 1000 Bytes (Byte) = One Kilobyte (KB)
  • 1024 kilo Byte (KB) = One Megabyte (MB)
  • 1024 Mega Byte (MB) = One Gigabyte (GB)
  • 1024 Giga Byte (GB) = One Terabyte (TB)
  • 1024 Terra Byte (TB) = One Pentite (PB)
  • 1024 Peta Byte (PB) = One Exabyte (EB)
  • 1024 Axa Byte (EB) = One Zetabyte (ZB)
  • 1024 Jetta Byte (ZB) = One Yotabyte (YB)
  • 1024 Yotta Byte (YB) = One Brontobyte
  • 1024 Bronto Byte = One Geop Byte

The largest unit or unit of measurement of computer memory is Geo Byte.

Conclusion :

So here we have seen various types of computer memory. I hope you will find this article helpful.
If you still have any doubts regarding the computer memory, then you can ask us through comment, or add your questions and answers in a comment below! I will try my best to clear your doubt.
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